Even though the soft SUVs have taken over the car market, some people are still buying off-road vehicles for what they were made to do – climb mountains and cross deserts. To those, a highly dedicated circle of customers, preparing to leave for the wilderness, is all about making their 4×4 capable of withstanding any situation. As any serious off-roader could tell you, no matter how big your tires are, how capable your suspension is, or how powerful your engine is, you will eventually get stuck. And then, you’ll need a winch.
What is A Winch and What is it Used For
A winch is a simple mechanical device used to release or pull ropes or, in this case, wire cables. The principle is quite straightforward and has been used in various forms throughout history, from fishing reels to helicopter winches. This is an integral part of all serious 4×4 vehicles and a common aftermarket piece in the off-road trucking industry.
Its primary purpose is to help get a truck out of the mud by pulling it out. To do that, it uses a hook and a wire, connecting it to some stable object – a big rock or a tree, and then slowly reel in the cable to pull the vehicle to more solid ground. Also, it is often used as a towing device to remove other vehicles from a ditch and similar situations.
How Does it Work?
A winch consists of a drum and cable. One end of a cable is connected to the vehicle and rolled onto the drum. The other end is used to attach the car to immovable objects (tree or a rock). Most winches used in the car industry are powered by the vehicle engine to produce enough torque needed to pull the heavy 4×4 out of the mud. Operating a winch on a vehicle is not without its dangers so always be sure that the end of the cable is safely connected to a firm and heavy object and that the cable is not damaged. Cable snapping in the middle of a pull-out process could be extremely dangerous.
Different Types of Winches
There are several types of winches used in the automotive industry regarding the powering method.
Easy to use and reasonably powerful, electric models are a standard upgrade for modern off-road vehicles. As you can guess, they are powered by an electric motor connected to the car’s battery. The advantages of electric winches are that they are relatively easy to install and provide solid pulling power. However, since the device is connected to the car’s battery, it is limited to its capacity. Good advice using an electric winch is to try not to drain the battery. Nothing is worse than since being stuck in the mud with a dead battery.
Also called engine-powered winches are the classic type that uses the engine’s power steering pump to power the winch. To operate this type of winch, you must first turn on your engine and then engage its mechanism. The power steering pump is connected to the winch through belts and set of gears and is known to be somewhat more powerful and effective than electric ones. The downside is a slightly more complicated installation. However, the advantage provided by the increase in power far outweighs the drawback.
Power Take-Off Winch
If you are a professional user with the need for a heavy-duty winch or a serious off-road enthusiast who is ready to tackle the most challenging terrains, then a PTO is the winch for you. This is a mechanical device attached to the vehicle’s gearbox and used to power auxiliary components, like the winch, directly. It can be used to power a hydraulic pump or directly connected to the winch transmitting the engine torque. Unfortunately, a Power Take-Off system is complicated and expensive, but it offers maximum pulling power, and it is standard with industrial users and on big trucks and heavy other machinery.
Which Type of Winch is the Best, Depending on the Situation?
The primary thing when choosing the winch is the capacity. To calculate it, take your vehicle’s gross weight and multiple it with a coefficient of 1.5. This is the minimum winch capacity you need. If you install a low capacity winch, you’ll risk not only snapping the cable but also overheating and breaking the mechanism. Since a winch is a life-saver when the road gets tough, you want to be able to depend on it. So, calculating the winch capacity is crucial when shopping for one.
The secondary thing is the type of winch. Even though they do the same job, you should choose according to your needs. An electric winch is more than enough for most users since it will provide you with enough pulling power, dependability, and value. If you are looking for additional power or an extended period of use, then a hydraulic winch is the best pick. It is more demanding for installation, but it will provide you with extra power if you need it. PTOs, on the other hand, are only for extreme situations and the most demanding tasks. If you aren’t sure you need one, you probably don’t.
How to Install A Winch?
Even though a winch is not a simple component, it can usually be added by first-time installers. Simply follow the manufacturer’s instruction guide and make sure you have the proper tools. Obviously, this doesn’t concern PTOs.
- First, be sure that you have a bumper which can actually hold a winch – Most vehicles come with plastic bumper which is in no way suited for the job. If you want to do it right, buy a full-metal bumper that has a specific space designed to accommodate a winch. To make sure it will stay in place when used, it needs to be bolted directly to the chassis of the vehicle.
- Mount the winch assembly onto the bumper – Be sure that you bolt it in properly, and install the winch in the right direction. Torque the bolts according to the manufacturer’s specifications.
- Connect the winch to a power source – If you are installing an electric model, this is an easy step since all you need is to connect the wires to the battery or any switched power source. In the case of hydraulic models, you will need to provide the assembly with additional brackets, hydraulic hoses, and belts, if required.
- Test the winch – Testing and proper lubrication of the mechanisms and cable is essential. It’s also a good idea to lubricate and re-test it before leaving on an off-road adventure.
- Safety first – Improperly using a winch can be very dangerous. Always wear safety equipment. Install it according to strict manufacturer guidelines and carry a blanket to put on the cable when pulling the vehicle. This proved to significantly reduce the risk in case of cable snapping and minimize the risk of injuries.
A winch is one of the things which differentiate real off-road enthusiasts from standard SUV owners. If you are a true 4×4 fan and spend your weekends roaming around the wilderness, this accessory is definitely a must-have for your vehicle. However, make sure to evaluate your needs and choose one wisely. And even more important, learn how to operate it properly to avoid injuries that could ruin your off-road trip.